A knowledge of basic statistics is important for the researcher.
Chi-Square: A common analysis needed by the researcher is the comparison of two groups of data where the results can be categorized into only a few types of results. For example: Comparing the results of two different techniques of closing a tympanic membrane perforation. The results can be categorized into two types: Perforation closed or perforation not closed.
A Chi-Square test can be used to analyze this type of comparison:
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Two-by-two calculator with Fisher's Exact Test and Yates' Correction
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Case 5A: Everted Papilloma
A 28 year old female was seen with complaints of left-sided nasal obstruction. The CT scan showed a hypodense mass in the left nasal cavity attached to the septum and left lateral nasal wall with collection in the left ethmoid and frontal sinuses.
The diagnostic nasal endoscopy showed some interesting findings. On primary inspection it resembled a nodular stage of rhinoscleroma, but on suctioning the mass exposed multiple papillae which comprised the mass. The mass was removed by endoscopic approach.
The histopathology showed multiple complex branching patterns having fibrovascular, core-typifying exophytic patterns. Papillae were lined by multilayered epithelium that contained both squamoid and transitional epithelium with occasional mucoytes. Fibrous stroma showed mononuclear infiltration.